Journal articles:

Safdar N, Bradley EA. The risk of infection after nasal colonization with Staphylococcus aureus. Am J Med. 2008 Apr;121(4):310-5.

Tolan, R.J., E.P. Baorto. Staphylococcus Aureus Infection. 2009 Retrieved Jan. 29, 2009 from

Todar, K. The Normal Bacterial Flora of Humans. In Todar, K. Todars’ Online Textbook of Bacteriology. 2008. Published online at

Herchline, T. Staphylococcal Infections, 2008. Retrieved Jan. 29, 2009 from

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. MRSA in Healthcare Settings. 2007. Retrieved Feb. 1, 2009 from

Styers, D., D.J. Sheehan, P. Hogan, D.F. Sahm. Laboratory-based surveillance of current antimicrobial resistance patterns and trends among Staphylococcus aureus: 2005 status in the United States. Ann Clin Microb and Antimicrob 2006; 5:2.

Siegel J.D. E. Rhinehart, M. Jackson, L. Chiarello. Management of Multidrug-Resistant Organisms In Healthcare Settings. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2006. Guideline2006.pdf.

Klevens, R.M., M.A. Morrison J. Nadle, S. Petit, K. Gershman, S. Ray et al. Invasive Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections in the United States. JAMA 2007;298(15):1763-1771.

Jernigan, J.A., A.L. Pullen, L. Flowers, M. Bell, W.R. Jarvis. Prevalence of and risk factors for colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus at the time of hospital admission. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2003; 24:409-414.

Muto, C.A., J.A. Jernigan, B.E. Ostrowosky, H.M. Richet, W.R. Jarvis, J.M. Boyce, et al. SHEA guideline for preventing nosocomial transmission of multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus. Infect Control and Hosp Epidemiol. 2003 May; 24(5):362-386.

Keshtgar, M.R.S., A. Khalili, P.G. Coen, C. Carder, B. Macrae, A. Jeanes, et al. Impact of rapid molecular screening for methsicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in surgical wards. British Journal of Surgery. 2008; 95: 381–386.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . Laboratory Detection of: Oxacillin/Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Retrieved August 10, 2009 from

Klevens RM, Morrison MA, Nadle J, et al. Invasive MRSA in the United States. JAMA. 2007; 298:1763-71.

Flayhart, D., J. F. Hindler, D. A. Bruckner, G. Hall, R. K. Shrestha, S. A. Vogel, et al. Multicenter evaluation of BBL CHROMagar MRSA medium for direct detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from surveillance cultures of the anterior nares. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2005; 43:5536-5540.

Robicsek, Ari, MD; Beaumont, Jennifer L., MS; Paule, Suzanne M., BS; Hacek, Donna M., BS; Thomson Jr., Richard B., PhD; Kaul, Karen L., MD, PhD; King, Peggy, RN, MBA; and Peterson, Lance R., MD. Universal Surveillance for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in 3 Affiliated Hospitals. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2008; 148 (6): 409-419.